There is a dirty little secret in purchasing that suppliers frequently accompany a request for quote (RFQ) with a verbal nudge to the buyer to "let me know what I need to do to win the business." Naturally, any company wants to win orders at the highest margin possible, so they seek with great vigor to discover the magical price that will capture the order while leaving them whole.
Part of the reason suppliers use this tactic is that some buyers routinely bid out their business, but only award orders to their preferred suppliers. What the buyer does is ask their favorite supplier, after the bidding is complete, to "meet comp." In plain terms this means that the buyer takes the dollar amount of the lowest bid received in the RFQ and tells the favorite supplier, "If you can meet (or slightly beat) XYZ's bid of ABC, then I'll give you the order." If the buyer doesn't prompt a supplier with a chance to meet their competition, quite often the supplier hopes for the best, takes the initiative and asks for the favor.
The logic behind this insidious (and as far as I'm concerned, unethical) process is that it enables the buyer to use competitive bidding to get pricing down, while still permitting them to issue the order to their supplier of choice. If the preferred supplier can meet virtually any competitive bid, and in my experience, they almost always do, the buyer is clearly leaving money on the table when the deal is done.
Even buyers that shun the "meet comp" practice have to deal with this issue on a regular basis. There are always suppliers that need a particular order to make their quarterly numbers, or a new supplier that desperately needs a good reference account. The larger and more visible your employer is, as a buyer, the worse this situation is. And as a buyer, it's hard to ignore. You have a duty to your employer to procure at the best possible total cost. So when a supplier calls you a couple of days after the bids are in, and says, "please let me know what I can do to win the business," the buyer is in a really tough spot.
Some buyers claim to get around this issue by asking suppliers to submit a "best and final bid" the first time around. The idea is to encourage suppliers to go ahead and submit the very lowest price right off the bat. Frankly, I'm unconvinced that this works. The desire of a supplier to maintain a high level of profitability cannot be underestimated, and I believe that this approach leaves money on the table. I know if I am given one chance to bid, now that I am in business for myself, I don't immediately drop to the lowest acceptable price.
At one point in my purchasing career, I worked for a really hot networking company that was growing more than 300 percent per year for several years in a row. My business was a target account for every supplier in the territory, so I frequently found myself in the position of having suppliers offer to lower their bid if I gave them a second chance. My standard response to this was to allow it, as long as I had the time and everybody was given the opportunity to requote. In other words, if supplier "a" came in the lowest, and supplier "b" called up and said "I'll lower my price if that will get me the order," then I would approve a rebid, but also give supplier "a" the chance to rebid. This way, my company was able to take advantage of lower prices, but I was not favoring one supplier over another.
The obvious problem with my solution to this dilemma was that it was time consuming and cumbersome, particularly if more than a few suppliers were quoting. In addition, allowing multiple rounds of bidding extended the amount of time it took to select a supplier. Here is where online reverse auctions come in.