- Limitations of actual loading Due to loading requirements or broken space caused by special cargo, a vessel's actual carrying capability will not reach its nominal capacity. These factors include overweight, out-of-gauge (over-high and/or over-wide), and dangerous goods, etc. For a 4,000-TEU vessel, the effective slot space can fall to under 3,200 TEU when the above-mentioned factors are taken into consideration.
- Replacement of aging fleet Aging vessels account for a notable share of the total existing fleet. More than 5 percent of current tonnage would normally have been scrapped having reached the age of 25 years. In other words, one out of every 20 new-buildings will be used to fill the vacuum created by the disposal of aging vessels.
In consideration of low productivity and high maintenance costs, the aging fleet will be gradually renewed. With part of the new-building fleet reserved for the replacement of the ageing fleet, the growth of effective capacity supply will slow down as a result.
- Capacity demand for feeder expansion To maintain the efficiency of the overall network, feeder services have to be upgraded in proportion to the expansion of mainline services. The tonnage requirement for feeder expansion will reduce the capacity growth of long-haul services.
For example, if a carrier were to deploy 10,000-TEU vessels to upgrade an existing Far East-Europe service that was using 6,000-TEU ships, shifting the 6,000-TEU vessels to replace 3,000-TEU ships in a Far East-Mediterranean service. The 3,000-TEU ships are then used to expand regional feeder networks. The cascading effects only supply 7,000-TEU of effective slots to the Far East-Europe (including Mediterranean) trade.
- Port congestion In the Far East, China in particular, the handling capacity and capability of container ports is being constantly upgraded in line with bullish cargo growth. In Europe, as in the U.S., there are also a number of major expansion plans, but environmental concerns, lengthy consultations and public enquiries are creating major delays measured in years, not months. These bottleneck problems will gradually influence operational efficiency and restrain effective capacity growth.
- Longer trade routes On the one hand, the booming Far East-Europe market brings huge cargo volumes to carriers. But on the other hand, the longer trade route requires more vessels than other trades and imposes mitigating effects on actual capacity growth. With most ULCS new-buildings deployed on the Far East-Europe trade, the growth of effective slots will be slower than the nominal capacity increase, and this will help to stabilize the global container shipping market.
For instance, it takes four to five ships to run a Far East-U.S. West Coast (USWC) weekly loop, but it requires eight to nine ships for a Far East-Europe weekly service. The deployment of eight 8,000-TEU vessels can form two weekly services on the Far East-USWC trade and increase weekly capacity supply by 16,000 TEUs. In contrast, the same eight vessels can only constitute one weekly service when shifted to the Far East-Europe trade and reduce the capacity increase by half.
- Crowding-out effect of way cargo Long-haul services can also carry way-cargo and thus dilute capacity supply for the main trade. For example, Far East-Europe services can serve the Red Sea market en route to Europe. Far East-U.S. East Coast all-water services can carry cargo in transit to South America.
Impact of Economic Growth
Challenges of a Competitive Market